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A Year In Andaluc

As said before, summer lasts all year in Andalucia. More than 300 sunny days on average reflect on the fantastic beaches, the crystal clear water of the Mediterranean Sea, which you can enjoy from June to May, the road trips you can take under the sun rays, and much more.

A Year in Andaluc

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Blessed with more than 300 sunny days per year, Malaga makes for a fantastic year-round holiday destination. The 2000 meter-high mountains that surround the city protect it from the cold winds coming from the North, for which Malaga revels in very mild climate conditions during the four seasons. However, know that in the towns in the interior of the province, such as Ronda, the weather is usually colder, due to the location in the middle of the mountains.

Average high/low temperature in Malaga in winter: 18ºC / 9ºCWeather in SevilleThe capital city of Andalucia has one of the warmest weather of Europe. The subtropical Mediterranean climate typical of the area provides the inhabitants and visitors of Seville with mild winters and incredibly hot summers, which make for huge temperature leaps during the whole year. As a matter of fact, know that the highest temperature ever registered in Europe occurred in Seville on August 4th, 1881, when the Sevillan people had to endure the unbelievable temperature of 50ºC.

There are no temperature leaps in Almeria, and this makes the province a fantastic spot where to spend the coldest months of the year, as the temperature rarely lowers more than 8ºC, even in winter.

In the Annals de Saint Gall, under the year 725, mention is made of the Saracens having crossed the Pyrenees, but there is no mention of their landing in the Iberian Peninsula in 711, a year that Spanish schoolchildren today learn by heart in the History of Spain class.1 This is one of those cases in which a date that is significant for some people at a certain time, means nothing to others during other periods.

Following the Invasion of Iberia by Tariq in 711 the Umayyads arrived from Damascus and settled in Córdoba where they established their capital in exile. Towards the end of the 11th century the Almoravids followed by the Almohads a Berber Muslim dynasty came over from northern Africa. Following the losses at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, at the beginning of the 13th century the Nasrids (who claimed to of middle eastern origin) began their 250-year reign of the Emirate of Granada (today's Granada and Malaga provinces) as a vassel state. When the Emerite of Granada was finally conquered by the Christians in 1492 the last Nasrid ruler, Boabdil, was exiled to the Alpujarras but after a year departed for Fez (in today's Morocco.

Neanderthal man is known to have lived on the Rock of Gibraltar, 50,000 years ago. In about 8,000 BC an influx of North African tribes established farming settlements throughout the region, and these people are known today as the Iberians. Andalucia's seaboard was extensively settled by the Phoenicians, who established a chain of trading posts, founding the sea port of Cadiz in 1100BC - which makes its Europe's oldest city - and strongly influencing the way of life of the native Iberians. The Phoenicians were followed by the Celts, who in 800 BC moved south across Europe and into Andalucia. By 700 BC the Tartessus Kingdom was flourishing in Andalucia, and a century later Greek sailors founded trading ports along its shore. By the year 500 BC, the Carthaginians had colonised southern Spain. More>

After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Andalucia was devastated by successive waves of barbarian tribes coming from northern Europe, with the eventual predominance of the Visigoths. This warlike people reigned chaotically over the peninsula for almost two centuries, leaving Spain open to the invasion of the Moors - Islamic warriors from Arabia and North Africa - in the year 711, and who called the region al-Andalus because they associated it with the Vandals, one of the barbarian tribes who had, several centuries earlier, swept across the Strait of Gibraltar into North Africa. More>

Andalucia was the launching point for the discovery of America (after the Upper Guadalquivir had silted up, making it impossible to sail as far inland as Cordoba), and Seville became the main port for the imports of gold from the New World during the 16th and 17th centuries. Whilst Fernando III had made significant progress in the Reconquest his successors for the next 150 year made very little. They concentrated on internal inheritance disputes and those with the the other Catholic Kingdoms of Navarre, Aragon and Portugal. More>

Isabel I (of Castile and Leon) and Ferdinand II (of Aragon), better known as the Catholics Monarchs, were a marriage which united medieval Spain: the great houses of Castile and Aragon, which between them controlled vast tracts of the peninsula. You can see references to these monarchs all over Andalucia, as their reign marked a key turning point in Spain's history, its fortunes and its power. They reconquered Granada from the Nasrids in 1492. This was the same year Columbus sailed to the New World. More>

Much of the wealth from America was spent on the wars waged by Spain's Hapsburg monarchy against the Lutheran countries in northern Europe and the Ottoman Turks in the Mediterranean, and as the flow of riches decreased, Spain and Andalucia sank into economic decline. Europe was at war and William and Mary were fighting Louis XIV. See HMS Sussex shipwreck. The region suffered the ravages of the Spanish War of Succession in the early 18th century and, one hundred years later. Andalucia's economy suffered the direct effect of the independence movement in South America during the rest of the 19th century. More>

On 19 March 1812, Spain's first constitution was drawn up in Cadiz, enshrining the rights of Spanish citizens and limiting the power of the monarchy. Although it was not enacted for some years, its influence was considerable, both within peninsular Spain and its territories around the world. More>

Al-Andalus[a] (Arabic: الأَنْدَلُس) was the Muslim-ruled area of the Iberian Peninsula. The term is used by modern historians for the former Islamic states in modern Spain and Portugal.[1] At its greatest geographical extent, it occupied most of the peninsula[2][3][4] and a part of present-day southern France, Septimania (8th century). For nearly 100 years, from the 9th century to the 10th, al-Andalus extended its presence from Fraxinetum into the Alps with a series of organized raids.[5][6][7] The name describes the different Muslim[8][9] states that controlled these territories at various times between 711 and 1492. These boundaries changed constantly as the Christian Reconquista progressed,[8][9][10] eventually shrinking to the south and finally to the Emirate of Granada.

Ultimately, the Christian kingdoms in the north of the Iberian Peninsula overpowered the Muslim states to the south. In 1085, Alfonso VI captured Toledo, starting a gradual decline of Muslim power. With the fall of Córdoba in 1236, most of the south quickly fell under Christian rule, and the Emirate of Granada became a tributary state of the Kingdom of Castile two years later. In 1249, the Portuguese Reconquista culminated with the conquest of the Algarve by Afonso III, leaving Granada as the last Muslim state on the Iberian Peninsula. Finally, on January 2, 1492,[14] Emir Muhammad XII surrendered the Emirate of Granada to Queen Isabella I of Castile, completing the Christian Reconquista of the peninsula.

During the caliphate of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I, the Moorish commander Tariq ibn-Ziyad led an army of 7,000 that landed at Gibraltar on April 30, 711, ostensibly to intervene in a Visigothic civil war. After a decisive victory over King Roderic at the Battle of Guadalete on July 19, 711, Tariq ibn-Ziyad, joined by Arab governor Musa ibn Nusayr of Ifriqiya, brought most of the Visigothic Kingdom under Muslim rule in a seven-year campaign. They crossed the Pyrenees and occupied Visigothic Septimania in southern France.

In 755, the exiled Umayyad prince Abd al-Rahman I (also called al-Dākhil, the 'Immigrant') arrived on the coast of Spain.[29] He had fled the Abbasids, who had overthrown the Umayyads in Syria and were slaughtering members of that family, and then he spent four years in exile in North Africa, assessing the political situation in al-Andalus across the Straits of Gibraltar, before he landed at Almuñécar.[30]

Abd al Rahman I died in 788 after a lengthy and prosperous reign. He was succeeded by his son, Hisham I, who secured power by exiling his brother who had tried to rebel against him. Hisham enjoyed a stable reign of eight years and was succeeded by his son Al-Hakam I. The next few decades were relatively uneventful, with only occasional minor rebellions, and saw the rise of the emirate. In 822 Al Hakam died and was succeeded by Abd al-Rahman II, the first great emir of Córdoba. He rose to power with no opposition and sought to reform the emirate. He quickly reorganized the bureaucracy to be more efficient and built many mosques across the emirate. During his reign science and art flourished, as many scholars fled the Abbasid caliphate due to the disastrous Fourth Fitna. The scholar Abbas ibn Firnas made an attempt to flee, though accounts vary on his success. In 852 Abd al Rahman II died, leaving behind him a powerful and well-established state that had become one of the most powerful in the Mediterranean.[34][35][36]

In 1086 the Almoravid ruler of Morocco, Yusuf ibn Tashfin, was invited by the Muslim princes in Iberia to defend them against Alfonso VI, King of Castile and León. In that year, Tashfin crossed the straits to Algeciras and inflicted a severe defeat on the Christians at the Battle of Sagrajas. By 1094, ibn Tashfin had removed all Muslim princes in Iberia and had annexed their states, except for the one at Zaragoza. He also regained Valencia from the Christians. The city-kingdom had been conquered and ruled by El Cid at the end of its second taifa period. The Almoravid dynasty made its capital in Marrakesh, from which it ruled its domains in al-Andalus.[50] Modern scholarship has sometimes admitted originality in North African architecture, but according to Yasser Tabbaa, historian of Islamic art and architecture, the Iberocentric viewpoint is anachronistic when considering the political and cultural environment during the rule of the Almoravid dynasty.[51] The rise and fall of the Almoravids is sometimes seen as an expression of Ibn Khaldun's asabiyyah paradigm.[52] 350c69d7ab


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